Now gardeners are laying new plantings garden strawberry... Quite often it is called strawberry. It even happens that people lively argue: which of them is right - those who call it strawberries, or those who call the culture strawberries.
The reasons for their justification are sometimes very funny. For example, they say that it is correct to call a garden strawberry a strawberry only because it grows in a garden plot, but one that grows in a forest is small-fruited - this is just a strawberry.
In fact strawberries are correct to call only nutmeg strawberries... This is the only type of strawberry, and all other varieties are garden strawberries. At the same time, wild strawberries differ from garden strawberries only in that the latter turned out as a result of spontaneous hybridization, that is, with the help of wind or insects, an actually new plant was formed, which annually gives us large, sweet, gorgeous-looking berries.
But, probably, few people would disagree with the fact that garden strawberries are the most widespread and beloved by most people culture. In a number of regions, the areas occupied by garden strawberries surpass the plantings allotted for black currants. You shouldn't be surprised here, a person chooses garden strawberries because their fruits contain a large set of biologically active substances and vitamins. It ripens earlier than many berry plants - already in June, slightly yielding only to honeysuckle, and can give several harvests per season if you have plantings of remontant strawberries, which we will also talk about soon.
In Russia, garden strawberries appeared a long time ago, around the end of the 18th century. It gained popularity in our country quite quickly, perhaps because it grew in forests, and everyone was familiar with this culture, but there the berry was very small, and then a real miracle appeared with fruits many times superior to those that grow in the forest.
A little later, the selection work began with the culture of garden strawberries. The first variety, which has received the widest distribution in Russia, was the Victoria variety. It is so firmly established in our garden plots that people even appropriated the name of the variety to the culture itself. And to this day, in many regions of Russia, garden strawberries are persistently called Victoria.
From a biological point of view, garden strawberry is a perennial plant with fairly wide leaves and snow-white flowers, which are located on long peduncles. The flowering of garden strawberries is rather long, it is gradually replaced by an equally long ripening period. Quite often you can see flowers on the plant, fully ripe fruits and those that are just beginning to ripen.
Garden strawberry is a very convenient culture, it tolerates frosts well, especially when there is enough snow cover on the site, it tolerates short-term drought, is not afraid of pests and diseases, and its flowers can withstand a drop in temperature to 1-2 degrees of frost. Naturally, in conditions close to ideal - on a nutritious soil with sufficient moisture, strawberries will bear fruit annually and will not disappoint you with the amount of harvest.
Agricultural technology of strawberries is not difficult either. All that is needed is to carry out periodic watering, especially in dry periods of the year, sometimes loosen the soil, remove weeds, and during the ripening period, under the bushes under the bushes, fresh straw or covering material so that the berries remain clean and they are not affected by rot. Indeed, most often those fruits that come into contact with the soil begin to rot. Especially a lot of rot in wet years, then the bedding of straw or covering material under the bushes is required, otherwise you can lose most of the crop.
Just as it is not difficult to care for garden strawberries, so it is not difficult to propagate them. The easiest way from the vegetative series is to reproduce with a mustache. As you know, many varieties of garden strawberries form a large number of mustaches. To prevent the plantation from thickening excessively, as well as to prevent strawberries from falling on areas not intended for it, the mustache must be trimmed.
It is not worth throwing away the trimmed mustache, it is enough to plant them in a suitable, well-lit place, and soon a new strawberry bush will form there, which after a couple of years will give the first harvest. The mustache retains all the characteristics of the variety. This is a complete planting material.
By the way, since we are talking about varieties of garden strawberries, let's look at the most interesting and fairly widespread. It is simply not possible to present all varieties, since selection work with this crop began quite a long time ago, and over the years a lot of them have been created. The first varieties were not characterized by the complexity of the signs, each of them stood out with something of its own: one gave very large fruits, the other ripened very early, the fruits of the third were distinguished by a fantastic dessert taste. Gradually, however, breeders began to tune in to the production of varieties that combine not one, but a whole complex of traits. There are real standards among such varieties, even if they are not supernova, but they can give the newest cultivars a head start.
Among such excellent varieties, cultivar can be noted Zarya... It is a rather powerful plant with very large light green leaves and strong peduncles that form large flowers. The berries of the first collection, which ripen earlier than others, are very large, their weight often exceeds 25 grams, then the berries become smaller, however, they are all characterized by pink and rather dense pulp, very tender and very sweet, with a slightly noticeable sourness.
The second known variety is Festivalnaya... How can you write it off, because it still grows on almost every garden plot and gives good yields. Plants of this variety grow rather quickly, filling all the voids with their ruby and very fragrant berries. The plants of this variety themselves are not tall, but rather strong, with large leaves and snow-white flowers.
German variety is also interesting Zenga Zengana... It attracts not only the name, but also the high and stable yield, excellent dark red berries that ripen in mid-June, and bushes very resistant to the vagaries of nature and diseases.
A little later, berries ripen from another famous variety - Festival chamomile... This cultivar is distinguished by an average ripening period, tolerates even severe frosts, being hidden under a snow cover, is characterized by dense berries of excellent taste. The very first fruits, ripening earlier than others, often weigh 40-45 g.
Of the additional bonuses that a gardener receives when buying a variety is resistance to verticillary wilt and powdery mildew, but berries are sometimes affected by gray rot, but the degree of this defeat is usually small.
If your site is located in a lowland, where cold air often accumulates, then you need to choose the most winter-hardy varieties for this, such as Nightingale and Knight... These plants are powerful, forming up to 10 peduncles each. More than five dozen berries can be harvested from one bush. In the Solovushka cultivar, the mass of the first fruits often exceeds 50 g, the mass of the Vityaz fruits ranges from 25 to 30 g. Both of these varieties are not damaged by ticks, are resistant to fungal diseases and give very tasty fruits.
If you want to grow a real dessert in your garden, in general, if you are a real sweet tooth, then choose varieties for planting Marishka or Slavutich... In addition to aromatic and tasty fruits, these varieties are also characterized by resistance to all fungal diseases and high winter hardiness. One bush of the Slavutich variety grows up to ten peduncles, each of which subsequently forms up to six dozen large berries with an average weight of 20-25 g.
The berries of the Marishka variety are slightly smaller in size, but they are no less fragrant and pleasant to the taste and appearance due to somewhat unusual bright yellow achenes, which are clearly visible against the bard background.
Of the foreign varieties, one cannot fail to mention the famous Scottish cultivar Red Gauntlet, the fruits of which are the last to ripen, thereby prolonging the season for the consumption of fresh, unrepaired strawberries. This variety is characterized by erect, numerous peduncles that grow above the leaf blades. As a result, the berries are easy to pick, they do not get dirty and are not affected by rot.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher, Berry Crops Department
GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina,
member of the R&D Academy
As Nikolai Vladimirovich already noted, there are many varieties of garden strawberries. Therefore, we decided to turn to our other author - Galina Dmitrievna Aleksandrova - a strawberry breeder, the author of many famous varieties of this wonderful berry. And even though now she is no longer engaged in breeding work, she continues to grow and multiply her own and other promising strawberry varieties at her summer cottage. We asked her to suggest varieties that gardeners in the Northwest region can grow. Of course, the best time to plant young bushes of this culture is August. But even now it will not be too late to plant plants, especially if you can plant bushes with a good root system and provide them with a reliable shelter with snow in the winter. For insurance, you can cover new plantings with lutrasil - until spring. So, here are the varieties recommended by G. D. Aleksandrova:
Of these varieties multiply in my mother liquor:
Beauty - a variety of my selection - large-fruited (up to 35 g), fast-growing (begins to bear fruit in new plants), fruitful, winter-hardy, resistant to verticillium, with berries of high taste and commercial qualities for dessert purposes. Peduncles are located above the level of the leaves. Berries are blunt-conical, bright red, shiny; juicy red pulp with excellent sweet and sour taste, with aroma.
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Sudarushka - also my variety - fruitful, large-fruited (up to 28-32 g), winter-hardy, resistant to verticillium, with one-dimensional berries, good taste and marketability, universal purpose. Has a high coefficient of vegetative reproduction. The bush is powerful, the peduncles are located at the level of the leaves and below. Berries are oval-conical, red, shiny with light red, dense, juicy pulp, good sweet and sour taste, with aroma, ripen somewhat later Krasavitsa variety.
Strawberries. Variety Sudarushka
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Junia Smides - Latvian variety - fruitful, winter-hardy, large-fruited (up to 28-30 g), resistant to fungal diseases, with berries of good taste and marketability. The bush is powerful, the peduncles are located at the level of the leaves. The berries are red, shiny, blunt-conical, with a short neck. The pulp is red, juicy, tender, sweet and sour taste with aroma. The appointment is universal. By the end of the harvest, the berries become smaller.
Marvelous - large-fruited (up to 35-38 g), high-yielding, resistant to verticillosis and other fungal diseases, with berries of high taste and marketability. The bush is tall, compact, peduncles are located at the level of the leaves. The berries are large, regular round-conical shape with a smooth surface, light red, shiny. The pulp is light orange, dense, juicy, of excellent sweet and sour taste, with aroma. The berries remain large in all harvests. The appointment is universal.
Strawberries. Variety Divnaya
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Onega - highly winter-resistant, large-fruited (up to 30 g), high-yielding, resistant to fungal diseases, with berries of high taste and marketability. The bush is vigorous, densely leafy. Peduncles are located at the level of the leaves. The breeding rate is high. The berries are elongated-oval, bright red, shiny with a small neck. The pulp is pink, tender, fibrous, sweet and sour taste.
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Favorite - highly winter-resistant, high-yielding, large-fruited (up to 32 g), resistant to verticillosis and other fungal diseases, with berries of high taste and marketability. The berries are elongated-oval, large, bright red. The pulp is pink, juicy, dense, sweet and sour taste, somewhat inferior to the Onega variety.
Tsarskoye Selo - a variety of my selection - high-yielding, winter-hardy, large-fruited (up to 33 g), resistant to verticillary wilt. Berries of excellent taste and commercial quality. The bush is medium-sized, the peduncles are located below the level of the leaves. The coefficient of vegetative reproduction is high. The berries are large, of the correct rounded-conical shape with a slightly hilly surface and a small neck. The color of the berries is dark red, almost cherry, with shine. The pulp is evenly colored, bright red, dense, juicy, excellent sweet and sour taste, with aroma.
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Gourmet - large-fruited (up to 34 g), productive, winter-hardy variety, resistant to verticillium wilt and other fungal diseases, with berries of excellent taste and marketability. The berries are large, round-conical, intense red, with a small neck, shiny. The pulp is evenly colored, red, dense, juicy, of excellent sweet and sour taste, with aroma.
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Souvenir - large-fruited (up to 33 g), high-yielding, highly winter-resistant variety, resistant to verticillosis and late blight, with berries of good taste and marketability. The berries are large, round-conical, bright red, with a small neck, for universal use.
Michurinsky variety Surprise Olympiad - large-fruited (up to 33 g), fruitful, winter-hardy, resistant to fungal diseases, with berries of a good sweet and sour taste with a strong nutmeg aroma. The bush is medium-sized, the peduncles are located at the level of the leaves. The berries are large, regular obtuse-conical shape with a deepened calyx, with a smooth surface, burgundy-red color, with shine. The pulp is bright red, dense, juicy.
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Carmen - Czech variety - large-fruited (up to 30-35 g), productive, resistant to fungal diseases, with berries of excellent sweet and sour taste, with aroma. The bush is vigorous, the peduncles are located at the level of the leaves. Berries are rounded-conical, not aligned, with a smooth surface, a recessed calyx. The color of the berries is carmine-red, without shine. The pulp is dark red, firm, with a shaft. In terms of winter hardiness, the variety is inferior to all domestic and some foreign varieties, but it recovers well in spring.
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Crown - Dutch variety - large-fruited (up to 36 g), sufficiently winter-hardy, fruitful, with berries of good taste and marketability. The berries are very beautiful, truncated-conical with a sharp top and a small neck, with a smooth surface and a thin skin. The color of the berries is dark red, with shine, the pulp is light red, dense, good sweet and sour taste with a pronounced aroma. By the end of the harvest, the berries become smaller. The winter hardiness of plants is slightly lower than the zoned varieties, but rather reliable, the resistance to fungal diseases is average.
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In addition, I can recommend varieties Original, Shelf, Carmen, Cinderella, Zenith, Talka, Droplet, Yonsok, Anniversary.
Galina Aleksandrova, breeder
So, we have chosen a place for planting strawberries, the soil has been prepared in advance.
Now we will decide what varieties we will plant. Above all, try to choose local, regionalized strawberry varieties that have already proven themselves in your climatic conditions.
In order to have these magnificent fragrant berries on your table for as long as possible, I advise you to purchase some early ripening seedlings (10%), medium early and medium-sized ones (60%), as well as late ripening varieties (30%).
Do not forget to plant remontant varieties, both wild strawberries and garden strawberries. And then you will have berries from spring to the very frost.
Pay great attention to the quality of the planting material, because this is the basis of all your future harvests.
Of course, it is best to purchase seedlings in proven nurseries, where they will be strong and healthy.
It is advisable not to buy from the market or from strangers, since there is a risk of acquiring weakened, infected plants or even seedlings of weed strawberry varieties, which we talked about in the previous article.
What should you first of all pay attention to when buying strawberry seedlings:
Usually we plant strawberry seedlings with one horn, but if you see two-horned seedlings on sale, then take it without hesitation, as you are incredibly lucky.
In order to save the family budget, you can not buy a large number of seedlings, but purchase several bushes of the varieties you like and propagate them yourself.
To do this, we plant the purchased seedlings in a specially designated small area (school) and surround them with care and attention.
We remove the peduncles in time, carefully lay out the whiskers that appear and help the small rosettes take root in the soil, making holes for them and watering.
Thus, we can get up to 40-50 seedlings from each mother plant.
If this is not the first time you are planting garden strawberries and you already have a plantation of this berry, then for new plantings you can already use your planting material.
When picking berries, notice the strongest and most productive bushes (no more than 2 years old) with approximately the same berry size and without any diseases.
From them, we will subsequently take a mustache for laying a new plot of garden strawberries. The mustache usually begins to grow in mid-summer.
When our marked bushes bear fruit, the process of forming a whisker and rooting of rosettes will begin.
Here it is necessary, without postponing the matter indefinitely, to select the most powerful sockets of the first order (in the extreme case of the second).
As a rule, weaker bushes grow from sockets of the following orders. Keep in mind that young plants produce whiskers a little earlier than fruiting ones.
Attention! Another nuance in the selection of outlets for planting. It turns out that not all young strawberry rosettes are capable of bearing fruit. They can be conditionally divided into "girls" and "boys".
So the "girls" usually give an excellent harvest, but the "boys" will leave you without it. Such bushes give a lot of mustaches, intertwining the entire garden, if they are not cut off in time.
How can you tell where who is? Firstly, for planting, it takes only the outlet closest to the mother bush, and secondly, “girls differ from“ boys ”by a more powerful rosette of leaves.
But it is much easier to separate "boys" from "girls" when planting in spring. In spring, all “males” have only two leaves, while “girls” have three.
If large-fruited garden strawberries are best propagated with the help of a mustache, then seedlings of small-fruited remontant strawberries can be perfectly grown from seeds.
And although this is a rather laborious and troublesome process, the result is worth the effort and time spent.
We usually sow strawberry seeds in March. If you want to get berries already this year, then sowing is best done early - in early February.
This, of course, will create additional troubles: creating the desired temperature regime, supplementary lighting, construction of shelters for early planting of seedlings.
We sow seeds in boxes about 8 cm high, which we fill with loose soil. We level the soil, water and scatter seeds over its surface.
Strawberry seeds are very small, so you don't need to sprinkle them with earth on top, but sprinkle them lightly with water from a spray bottle and they will be a little "drawn" into the ground. This will be enough for them to germinate.
Or, you can carefully sprinkle them with sand on top through a sieve, about 1 mm.
After sowing, close the boxes with foil or glass, put them in a warm, dark place and wait for the shoots.
The seeds can germinate (depending on the variety) after 10 days, and after 30, or even after 45 days. Therefore, you need to be patient and not despair when the seeds do not germinate for a long time.
For planting strawberry seeds, you can also use plastic boxes with lids.
When 2-3 true leaves appear, we proceed to planting the plants in separate pots.
If you are in no hurry to get berries as early as possible, then perhaps the most favorable period for sowing strawberry seeds is from early May to late June.
Having planted the seeds within this time frame, we will get excellent seedlings in the first year without much hassle.
I plan to describe all the methods of breeding our favorite strawberries in more detail in a separate article.
Renovation strawberry varieties attract gardeners with a number of advantages. In fact, their "progenitor" is the common forest strawberry, which is known for its characteristics: active fruiting, unpretentiousness and disease resistance.
You don't have to go to the mountains to feel the fresh breath of the Alps. It is enough to grow "alpine" berries on your plot. In recent decades, thanks to the achievements of breeders, varieties of strawberries with neat bushes and small berries have been bred, collectively known as "alpine strawberries". Its main features:
What varieties of alpine strawberries are recognized as the best for the middle lane?
Such varieties as remontant differ from the rest in their high yield. If these plants are properly looked after, then in just 1 season you can get 2 crops from them. Such varieties are hybrid, and they differ from all others in that they have the highest resistance to various adverse environmental influences.
Such a hybrid plant was born thanks to English breeders. The bushes have a very effective appearance, and all thanks to the unusual shape of the peduncles - elongated. His root system is very powerful, while the formation of berries occurs even on the mustache. This variety is early maturing and large-fruited. It also stands out for its extraordinary productivity, so, on average, about 3 kilograms of berries can be harvested from one bush of garden strawberries. Harvesting begins at the end of the spring period and lasts until the onset of autumn frosts. These berries have excellent taste, and a very delicate musky aftertaste can be discerned in their taste.
This hybrid variety appeared more than 10 years ago thanks to American specialists. The berries of this plant are distinguished by their large size, attractive appearance, and also a very pleasant smell. These bushes have large leaf plates that can protect the plant from overheating. It has a high yield, so about 2 kilograms of berries can be harvested from 1 bush. Fruiting lasts from early June to late August.
This variety was bred by Russian breeders, and it is their pride. Such a plant gives 2 crops per season. So, berries harvested from the first harvest do not have quite the correct shape, and they are harvested in June. The berries of the second harvest have the correct shape, which are harvested in the month of July. The fruit of this hybrid plant is excellent for transport and can be frozen and stored in the freezer.
Such a hybrid plant was born a long time ago, or rather, in 1991, thanks to breeders from France. The shape of the bushes, as well as berries, is quite unusual and rather spectacular - round. The main positive qualities of this variety include its high frost resistance. So, after wintering in such a variety, no more than 5 percent of all plantings die. The berries are very sweet and therefore perfect for young children.
Many gardeners grow strawberries on a pyramid... For pyramid devices for strawberries (strawberries) choose a sunny meadow. We lay a wicker with small holes, the so-called rabbit mesh, 240 × 240 cm in size.We connect the strips with wire. From boards (you can from Flat slate) 25 cm wide, we make a frame 220 × 220 cm and put it on the grid. We round off the upper edge of the board to protect the stems from breakage on sharp edges.
We put a layer of peat 15 cm thick on the grid inside the square.In the center of the future pyramid, we place a piece of a 10-cm asbestos-cement pipe for irrigation. We close its bottom and drill holes with a diameter of 5-10 mm in the walls. In the lower half of the pipe, they have a smaller diameter, in the upper half - a larger one (see Fig. №1).
Place the compost mixed with manure and mineral fertilizers around the pipe with a cone. We compact all this and constantly keep it wet. The compost heats the entire pyramid. The rest of its sections are installed to the level of the upper edge of the pipe and filled with earth sifted through a mesh or sieve.
Pyramid must be ready at least 4 weeks before transplanting. In order for the compost and soil to "settle down" well, every week we supplement the section with earth to the upper edges. This process is accelerated by rain and watering.
Fig. # 1. Strawberry pyramid
Seedlings on a pyramid we plant in July, so that before winter it has time to take root and yield a harvest next year. We select the best 70 seedlings and place them on the pyramid as follows: in the lower tier according to the 4X7 scheme - 28 bushes, in the second 4X5 - 20, in the third 4X3 - 12, in the fourth 4X2 - 8 and on the top of the pyramid - 2 bushes, which will cover pipe. We do not pull out the weeds, but pluck them, otherwise the roots of the berry plants located next to them can be damaged.
Perennial experience in growing strawberries (strawberries) in such pyramid confirmed her dignity. During this time, the bushes never froze. With the beginning of snowfall, we try, as far as possible, to collect snow from the paths and cover the bushes with it. From the first days of April, crosswise we cover the structure with a film, after which the entire pyramid begins to warm up faster, and as soon as signs of bushes growth appear, we remove the film. We process all the plants and feed them with full mineral fertilizer (Riga or Gomel) at the rate of 1 tablespoon in the upper tier, 1.5 in the second, 2 in the third, and in the fourth. 2.5 tablespoons on each side of the pyramid. Then we thoroughly spill the plants with warm water, adding 2 g of potassium permanganate to the watering can. After that, we again cover the pyramid with a film in such a way that the film leaves a little at the edges for air circulation.
With the beginning of flowering, we remove the film, and at the same time we water and feed the plants, adding 2 tablespoons of urea and 2 g of potassium permanganate to one watering can. After that, we no longer cover the pyramid, and watering is carried out only through the pipe.
When berries ripen in unfavorable weather with frequent rains, sometimes we again cover the pyramid with a film for the quickest ripening of the berries and so that they do not get sick with gray rot.
After collecting the entire crop, we carefully process each plant and feed it with manure humus or well-rotted compost, adding 0.5 kg of complete mineral fertilizer to each bucket. Mix thoroughly and sprinkle around the bushes based on one bucket for the upper and second tiers, 1.5 for the third, and 2 buckets for the fourth.
We replace the plants every 3-4 years (at the same time we also change the soil layer 20-25 cm). When planting, we try to place different varieties of strawberries on a tier. So the plants are better pollinated.
Due to their excellent adaptability, early maturing species are grown in all regions. For better fruiting, it is recommended to plant zoned varieties depending on climatic conditions... Early strawberries are the most expensive berries on the market, so gardeners are showing interest in them in order to breed them for sale. Most popular varieties: Alba, Christina, Honey, Clery, Kimberly, Anthea, Kent, Meia.
It is considered a disease-resistant, fruitful strawberry. Berries weigh up to 25 grams ... Gardeners celebrate a long harvest period starting in June.
Meets high transportability and differs from other varieties increased sugar content.
Strawberries from American breeders Honey - have the advantages of early ripening. Berries begin to bear fruit in May..
The Italian variety Clery - popular among gardeners as low temperature resistant look.
Early strawberry variety Kimberly attracts with its caramel flavor, uniform shape and glossy surface.
Elongated, conical in shape, berries of Anthea strawberries are not afraid of hot summer. Differ in dark red color... Ripen after Clery. Recommended as an early crop for growing on farms and household plots.
Every gardener strives for a rich strawberry harvest. A good help to this will be the choice in favor of promising varieties of strawberries. Each of the species presented in the list is perspective in its own way.:
Combines promising strawberries: high yield per season, early ripening, suitability for transportation. Elizabeth II - strawberries of continuous fruiting, gives a stable harvest until October. Gigantella - Dutch culture with large up to 100 grams fruits. Albion - begins to bear fruit a year after planting. Differs in excellent taste with a tempting strawberry aroma. Albion strawberries can propagate by dividing a bush, mustache or seeds.